HISTORY OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR, This Article is important for those students who are preparing for any competitive exam such as UPSC, JKPSC, JKSSB or any other National level Examination.
We will divide this Article into 3 major parts
- History of Kashmir
- History of Jammu
- And History of Jammu and Kashmir
Other than this we have made a complete Article on Geography of Jammu and Kashmir You can check that Article Here
Part 1 – History of Kashmir
⏩ Nilmat Purana
- The oldest book on Kashmir
- According to Nilmat Purana, Kashmir was once a lake (Satisar Lake) that was drained by Rishi Kashyapa.
- Written by Kalhana (1150 AD)
- Moreover, Rajatarangni means “River of Kings”
- History of kings.
- Originally written in Sanskrit.
- Translated in English by Astein in 1900
- Translated in Persian by Mulla Ahmed
- Also, The first historian of Kashmir: Kalhan
- Burzahom is the first Neolithic site discovered in Kashmir. It is the first archaeological site of India.
- Gonanda – I: First king mentioned by Kalhan in Rajatarangni.
⏩ Mauryan Empire
- Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar (Pandrethan)
- Ashoka was a follower of Buddhism
⏩ Kushan Empire
- Three great Kushan rulers: Hushka, Jushika, Kanishka.
- 4th Buddhist Council – held by Kanishka at Kundalwan (present Harwan, in Srinagar)
*Note: Further Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar (Pandrethan).
Praversena – II founded the modern city of Srinagar (Praversenpura).
⏩ Karkota Dynasty
- Founded by: Durlabhavardhana
- Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited Kashmir.
- Greatest Ruler: Lalitaditya Muktapida.
- Lalitaditya ruled for 36 years.
- He is also known as Samudra Gupta of Kashmir
- Capital of Lalitaditya: Parihaspora
- Lalitaditya built: Sun Temple (Martand).
⏩ Utpala Dynasty (855 – 939 AD)
- Founder: Avantivarman
- PM of Avantivarman: Sheru
- Avantivarman founded the town of Avantipora.
- Capital of Avantivarman: Awantipora
- Established 2 temples in Awantipora.
- Suyya: He was an engineer during the Avantivarman rule.
- Suyya founded Suyyapur (present Sopore)
⏩ Gupta Dynasty (948 – 1003 AD)
- Founder: Parvagupta
- Son of Parvagupta: Kshenagupta
- Wife of Kshemagupta: Queen Didda
- Queen Didda was the real ruler of the Gupta Dynasty.
- Mehmud of Ghazni tried to capture the valley during Queen Didda’s rule.
⏩ Lohara Dynasty (1003 – 1171)
- Founded by: Sangram Raja, nephew of Queen Didda
- Kalhan completed Rajatarangni during this period.
- Great ruler: Jaisimha (ruled for 27 years)
⏩ Deva Dynasty (1171 – 1339)
- During the rule of Sahdev, Mongol Dulucha invaded valley.
- Originally a prince of Ladakh.
- Embraced Islam. Renamed: Sultan Sadar-ud-Din.
- 1st Muslim ruler of Kashmir.
- Built 1st mosque in Kashmir: Bud Masheed.
- Rinchin married Kota Rani.
- Rinchin renamed himself Sultan Sadar-ud-Din.
- The actual founder of Muslim rule in Kashmir: Shah Mir.
- Rinchin accepted Islam under the influence of Bulbul Shah and Shah Mir.
⏩ Shah Mir Dynasty (1339 – 1555)
- Founder: Shah Mir (Sultan Shams-ud-Din)
- Shah Mir was the minister of Rinchin.
- In this period, Islam was established in Kashmir.
- Commander-in-chief: Lankar Chak
- Notable rulers: Sultan Shahab-ud-Din, Zain-ul-Abideen
- Known by the name “Budshah”
- Ruled for 50 years.
- He is also called as “Akbar of Kashmir”
- He abolished Jaziya.
- Introduced art (Pashmina Shawl, wooden architecture,)
- Set up Translation Department:
- Translated Mahabharat, Ramayana, Rajatarangni
from Sanskrit to Persian.
- Built first wooden bridge in Srinagar: Zainakadal.
- Built artificial island in Wular lake: Zaine Lank.
- Canals: Mar Canal, Pohru Canal, Kakapur Canal, etc.
*Syed Hamdani visited Kashmir for the first time during the rule of Sultan Shahab-ud-din.
⏩ Chak Dynasty: (1555 – 1586)
- Founder: Gazi Chak
- Yusuf Shah Chak married Habba Khatoon.
- Moreover, Yusuf Shah Chak made Sonamarg and Gulmarg as holiday resorts.
- Mughal army (under Qasim Khan) defeated Chak’s army at Haripora.
- Mughals (Akbar) entered Kashmir.
- Last ruler of Chak Dynasty: Yaqoob Shah
⏩ Mughal Rule in Kashmir (History) (1587 – 1752)
- Ruled for 165 years.
- Entered Srinagar on October 14, 1586.
- Meanwhile, First Governor: Qasim Khan.
- Notable Mughal Rulers:
- Shah Jahan
Mughal Emperor AKBAR
- Visited Kashmir 3 times.
- Ladakh occupied during 3rd visit.
- Built: Hari Parbat Fort.
Mughal Emperor JEHANGIR
- Jehangir and his wife Nur Jahan visited Kashmir several times.
- Jehangir laid out: Shalimar Bagh.
- Asif Khan laid out: Nishat Bagh
- Asif Khan was the Nur Jahan’s brother.
Mughal Emperor SHAH JAHAN
- Visited Kashmir 4 times.
- Shahjahan laid out: Chashma Shahi
- Furthermore, Dara Shikoh built: Pari Mahal.
- Dara Shikoh was the eldest son of Shahjahan.
Mughal Emperor AURENGZEB
- Visited Kashmir only once in 1665.
⏩ Afghan Rule in Kashmir (1752 – 1819)
- Ahmad Shah Abdali of Kabul conquered Kashmir
- Afghans defeated Mughals.
- Kashmir was ruled by governors.
- First Afghan Governor of Kashmir: Abdullah Khan Ishaq
- Notable Afghan Governors: Amir Khan, Atta Mohd.
- Amir Khan built: Amira Kadal, Sher Garhi Fort, etc.
- Atta Mohd built: Koh-e-Maran Fort.
- Last Afghan ruler of Kashmir: Jabbar Khan
⏩ Sikh Rule in Kashmir (1819 – 1846)
- Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir in 1819.
- Sikh Commander: Zorawar Singh
- Kashmir ruled by 10 governors.
- 1st Sikh ruler of Kashmir: Diwan Moti Ram
- Last Sikh ruler of Kashmir: Sheikh Imam-ud-Din
Part 2 – History of Jammu
|Gulab Nama||Devan Kirpa Ram|
|Tawarikh-e-eDuggar Desh||Narsing Das Nargis|
- Raja Jambu Lochan founded Jammu city in 14th century.
Bahu Lochan built Bahu Fort
- Shakti Karan introduced Dogri script.
Brij Dev was ally of Mohd. Ghori. He founded Bijaypur (Vijaypur)
- Shifted capital to Jammu
- Built building at Purani Mandi (Mul Mandi)
- Sat first time on “Gaddi”
- Timur invaded Jammu.
- Built Mubarak Mandi Palace
- Shifted palace from Mal Dev Mandi to Mubarak Mandi Palace.
Ranjit Singh: (Sikh Rule)
- Jammu conquered by Sardar Hukum Singh.
- Son of Ranjit Singh: Prince Kharak Singh
- Kharak Singh received Jammu as a jageer.
- Gulab Singh (dogra) enters Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s military.
- Ranjit Singh conferred Gulab Singh the title of “Raja of Jammu”
- Sikhs were defeated by British.
Part 3 – History of Jammu and Kashmir
⏩ Treaty of Amritsar
- March 16, 1846
- British sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh for 75,000 Nanak Shahi rupees.
- Jammu and Kashmir came into existence. (Foundation of J&K was laid)
- New Maharaja of J&K: Gulab Singh (dogra)
- Foundation of J&K: March 16, 1846
- First Maharaja of J&K: Gulab Singh
- Dogra Rule in Jammu and Kashmir (History): (1846 – 1947)
- Gulab Singh
- Ranbir Singh
- Partap Singh
- Hari Singh
⏩ Gulab Singh (1846 – 1857)
- Ruled for 11 years
- Divides state of J&K into 3 provinces: Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh.
- Kashmir Province: 2 districts:
- Jammu Province: 4 districts:
- Reformed the begaar system (forced labour)
- In 1856 Gulab Singh installed his son, Ranbir Singh, as the next Maharaja of J&K.
⏩ Ranbir Singh (1877 – 79)
- Ruled for 28 years
- Civil Department
- Revenue Department
- Military Affairs
- Sadar Adalats (Chief Courts)
- Ranbir Penal Code introduced (History of Jammu and Kashmir).
- Started construction of Rawalpindi–Srinagar cart road.
- Postal services introduced between Srinagar – Muree.
- Telegraph links set up between Jammu – Srinagar.
- Map of the valley was prepared.
- Built: Raghunath Temple at Jammu
- Great Famine occurred during 1877-79.
⏩ Pratap Singh (1885 – 1925)
Ruled for 40 years.
- Eldest son of Ranbir Singh.
- Pratap Singh had no sons.
- Modernisation of J&K state.
- Further, Begar System (forced labour) was abolished.
- Jhelum Valley Cart Road was completed.
- Also, Banihal Cart Road (BC Road) thrown open in 1922.
- Sialkot – Jammu railway line was inaugurated in 1890.
- Telephone connection between Jammu – Srinagar.
- Electrification of J&K.
- SP College, Srinagar (1905).
- Prince of Wales College, Jammu (1907)
- Canals: Pratap Canal, Upper Jhelum Canal, Ranbir Canal, Ujh Canal, etc.
- Hydro-electric power project at Mohra.
- Houseboats were constructed
⏩ Hari Singh (1925- 1948)
- Nephew of Pratap Singh
- Commander-in-Chief since 1915.
- Compulsory Primary Education Act
- Additionally, J&K Bank established in 1938.
- Constituted High Court. 1929.
- Also, State Subject Status.
- Voluntary exile: June 1947
- Moreover, 26 October 1947: Signed Instrument of Accession of J&K to India.
- Karan Singh is the son of Hari Singh.
- Meanwhile, Hari Singh died on 26 April, 1961.
⏩ Sheikh Mohd Abdullah
- Born 05 December, 1905. Soura, Srinagar.
- Also, known as “Sher-e-Kashmir”
- Agitated against the rule of Hari Singh
- Urged self rule for Kashmir
- He founded Muslim Conference (later changed to National Conference).
- He later became Prime Minister of J&K.
- Land reforms (Land to tiller)
- Biography: Aatish-e-Chinar written by Mohd Yusuf Taing
- Died 08 September, 1982.
1st and the Last Rulers of J&K after the Independence of INDIA
|Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir||Mehr Chand Mahajan|
|Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir||Ghulam Mohd Sadiq|
|President (Sadr-e-Riyasat)||Karan Singh|
|1st Governor of J&K||Karan Singh|
|Lt. Governor of J&K UT||GC Murmu|
|Last Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir||Ghulam Mohd Sadiq|
|Chief Minister of J&K||Mehbooba Mufti|
|Last Governor of Jammu and Kashmir||Satyapal Malik|
|Current Lt. Governor of J&K UT||Manoj Sinha|