JKSSB Veterinary Pharmacist / Stock Assistant Study Material
Prepared by JKYouth.com Team.
|Basic English||30 Marks|
STUDY MATERIAL for General English
Basic English: 30 Marks
- Reading comprehension
What Are Articles?
Articles are words that define a noun as specific or unspecific. Consider the following examples:
After the long day, the cup of tea tasted particularly good.
By using the article the, we’ve shown that it was one specific day that was long and one specific cup of tea that tasted good.
After a long day, a cup of tea tastes particularly good.
By using the article a, we’ve created a general statement, implying that any cup of tea would taste good after any long day.
English has two types of articles: definite and indefinite. Let’s discuss them now in more detail.
The Definite Article
The definite article is the word the. It limits the meaning of a noun to one particular thing. For example, your friend might ask, “Are you going to the party this weekend?” The definite article tells you that your friend is referring to a specific party that both of you know about. The definite article can be used with singular, plural, or uncountable nouns. Below are some examples of the definite article the used in context:
Please give me the hammer.
Please give me the red hammer; the blue one is too small.
Please give me the nail.
Please give me the large nail; it’s the only one strong enough to hold this painting.
Please give me the hammer and the nail.
The Indefinite Article
The indefinite article takes two forms. It’s the word a when it precedes a word that begins with a consonant. It’s the word an when it precedes a word that begins with a vowel. The indefinite Article indicates that a noun refers to a general idea rather than a particular thing. For example, you might ask your friend, “Should I bring a gift to the party?” Your friend will understand that you are not asking about a specific type of gift or a specific item. “I am going to bring an apple pie,” your friend tells you. Again, the indefinite article indicates that she is not talking about a specific apple pie. Your friend probably doesn’t even have any pie yet. The indefinite article only appears with singular nouns. Consider the following examples of indefinite articles used in context:
Please hand me a book; any book will do.
Please hand me an autobiography; any autobiography will do.
Exceptions: Choosing A or An
There are a few exceptions to the general rule of using a before words that start with consonants and an before words that begin with vowels. The first letter of the word honor, for example, is a consonant, but it’s unpronounced. In spite of its spelling, the word honor begins with a vowel sound. Therefore, we use an. Consider the example sentence below for an illustration of this concept.
Incorrect : My mother is a honest woman.
Correct: My mother is an honest woman.
Similarly, when the first letter of a word is a vowel but is pronounced with a consonant sound, use a, as in the sample sentence below:
Incorrect: She is a United States senator.
Correct : She is a United States senator.
Article Before an Adjective
Sometimes an article modifies a noun that is also modified by an adjective. The usual word order is article + adjective + noun. If the article is indefinite, choose a or an based on the word that immediately follows it. Consider the following examples for reference:
Correct : Eliza will bring a small gift to Sophie’s party.
Correct : I heard an interesting story yesterday.
Indefinite Articles with Uncountable Nouns
Uncountable nouns are nouns that are either difficult or impossible to count. Uncountable nouns include intangible things (e.g., information, air), liquids (e.g., milk, wine), and things that are too large or numerous to count (e.g., equipment, sand, wood). Because these things can’t be counted, you should never use a or an with them—remember, the indefinite article is only for singular nouns. Uncountable nouns can be modified by words like some, however. Consider the examples below for reference:
Incorrect : Please give me a water.
Water is an uncountable noun and should not be used with the indefinite article.
Correct : Please give me some water.
However, if you describe the water in terms of countable units (like bottles), you can use the indefinite article.
Correct : Please give me a bottle of water.
Incorrect : Please give me an ice.
Correct : Please give me an ice cube.
Correct : Please give me some ice .
Note that depending on the context, some nouns can be countable or uncountable (e.g., hair, noise, time):
Correct : We need a light in this room.
Correct : We need some light in this room.
Many languages and nationalities are not preceded by an article. Consider the example below:
Incorrect : I studied the French in high school for four years.
Correct : I studied French in high school for four years.
Sports and academic subjects do not require articles. See the sentences below for reference:
Incorrect : I like to play the baseball.
Correct : I like to play baseball .
Incorrect : My sister was always good at the math .
Correct : My sister was always good at math .
Synonym is a word that has the same meaning as another word in the same language.
- afraid – scared
- angry – mad
- child – kid
- cold – chilly
- difficult – hard
- garbage – trash
- gift – present
- happy – glad
- house – home
- large – big
- leap – jump
- loud – noisy
- pull – tug
- push – shove
- quick – fast
- rug – carpet
- sick – ill
- silent – quiet
- simple – easy
- smart – clever
- sniff – smell
- spooky – scary
- sprint – run
- stone – rock
- street – road
- talk – speak
- tiny – small
- tired – sleepy
- toss – throw
- yell – shout
Antonym is a word opposite in meaning to another
|Achieve – Fail||Giant – Dwarf||Random – Specific|
|Afraid – Confident||Gloomy – Cheerful||Rigid – Flexible|
|Ancient – Modern||Individual – Group||Shame – Honor|
|Arrive – Depart||Innocent – Guilty||Simple – Complicated|
|Arrogant – Humble||Knowledge – Ignorance||Single – Married|
|Attack – Defend||Liquid – Solid||Sunny – Cloudy|
|Blunt – Sharp||Marvelous – Terrible||Timid – Bold|
|Brave – Cowardly||Noisy – Quiet||Toward – Away|
|Cautious – Careless||Partial – Complete||Tragic – Comic|
|Complex – Simple||Passive – Active||Transparent – Opaque|
|Crazy – Sane||Permanent – Unstable||Triumph – Defeat|
|Crooked – Straight||Plentiful – Sparse||Union – Separation|
|Demand – Supply||Positive – Negative||Unique – Common|
|Destroy – Create||Powerful – Weak||Upset – Relaxed|
|Divide – Unite||Praise – Criticism||Urge – Deter|
|Drunk – Sober||Private – Public||Vacant – Occupied|
|Expand – Contract||Problem – Solution||Vague – Definite|
|Freeze – Boil||Professional – Amateur||Villain – Hero|
|Full – Empty||Profit – Loss||Wax – Wane|
|Generous – Stingy||Quality – Inferiority||Wealth – Poverty|
Preposition is a word or group of words that is used with a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to show direction, location, or time, or to introduce an object.
What exactly is a preposition?
A preposition is a word—and almost always a very small, very common word—that shows direction (to in “a letter to you”), location (at in “at the door”), or time (by in “by noon”), or that introduces an object (of in “a basket of apples”). Prepositions are typically followed by an object, which can be a noun (noon), a noun phrase (the door), or a pronoun (you).
What is an example of a preposition?
The most common prepositions are at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, and with. Other common prepositions are about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, because of, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, close to, down, during, except, inside, instead of, into, like, near, off, on top of, onto, out of, outside, over, past, since, through, toward, under, until, up, upon, within, without.
Examples of preposition in a Sentence
The preposition “on” in “The keys are on the table” shows location. The preposition “in” in “The movie starts in one hour” shows time.
Types of Prepositions
Prepositions indicate direction, time, location, and spatial relationships, as well as other abstract types of relationships.
Direction: Look to the left and you’ll see our destination.
Time: We’ve been working since this morning.
Location: We saw a movie at the theater.
Space: The dog hid under the table.
Verbs are words that show an action (sing), occurrence (develop), or state of being (exist). Almost every sentence requires a verb.
How to Recognize a Verb
As you can see from the examples above, one clue to help you recognize a verb is its location compared to the subject. Verbs almost always come after a noun or pronoun.
- Mark eats his dinner quickly.
- We went to the market.
- You write neatly in your notebook.
- They thought about all the prizes in the competition.
Some examples of Verbs:
- 6. Determiners
Determiners are words such as the, my, this, some, twenty, each, any, which are used before nouns. Determiners include the following common types:
Articles:a, an, the
Demonstratives:this, that, these, those
Possessives:my, your, his, her, etc.
Quantifiers:(a) few, some, many, etc.
Numbers:one, two, three, etc.
More than one determiner
We can use more than one determiner in a noun phrase:
My two best friends at school were Mike and Terry.
All your books got wet when you left them in the garden – do you remember?
We don’t use two referring determiners or two quantifying determiners together:
We sold the house.
We sold our house.
We sold the our house.
I have some questions.
I have many questions.
I have some many questions.
However, we can use a quantifying determiner (some, many, enough, etc.) + of together with a referring determiner (the, this, my, etc):
Many of the people present were very angry.
Some of his friends are awful people.
We can also use some determiners as pronouns
|before a noun||as a pronoun (no noun following)|
|Would you like some bread with your soup?||I’ve got a bar of chocolate here. Would you like some?|
|We didn’t have enough volunteers to make the project work.||A: Do you need more paper? B: No. I’ve got enough, thanks.|
|Several people complained about the slow service.||It’s not just one school that is in financial difficulty; there are several.|
Practice more and more spellings and get excellence
there are 5 kinds of sentences.
- Declarative Sentence
- Interrogative Sentence
- Imperative Sentence
- Exclamatory Sentence
- Optative Sentence
There is another name of these sentences i.e. assertive sentence. They express facts, actions and happenings. There are two kinds of a declarative sentence.
- Affirmative Sentence
- Negative Sentence
Assertive or declarative sentences end with a full stop.
- He has completed his assignment. (Affirmative Sentence)
- She has no car. (Negative Sentence)
These sentences are questions. There are two kinds of interrogative sentences –
- Single Interrogative
- Double Interrogative
Sigle Interrogative sentences start with an auxiliary verb. For instance –
- Are you going to offer prayer?
- Can he solve this problem?
And double interrogative sentences start with Wh. For instance –
- Why are you so happy?
- Where has your father been for so long?
All the interrogative sentences end with a question mark (?).
These sentences express requests, command, suggestions etc. They are both positive and negative. Imperative sentences end with a full stop. For instance –
- Come here. (Command/Suggestion)
- Come here, please. (Request)
- Don’t sit there. (Command/suggestion)
These sentences express exclamations. They express sudden feelings and emotions like joy, sorrow, surprise, anger etc. Exclamatory sentences end with exclamation marks. For instance –
- What a nice shirt it is!
- Wow! This is a nice gift.
- Hurrah! we have won the match.
This is the last kinds of sentences in topic 5 kinds of sentences with examples. These sentence express wishes, prayers, blessings and curses. Optative sentences end with an exclamation mark. For instance-
- Good morning!
- May you live long!
- May you go to hell!
- Happy birthday!
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