Meet Bilal Mohiuddin Bhat UPSC CSE AIR – 10: 4th Attempt, Toppers Strategy

CSE year2016
Optional SubjectVeterinary Science and Animal Husbandry
Attempt Fourth
Age upon clearing the exam31
EducationVeterinary Science

Hello everyone I am Bilal Mohiuddin Bhat, I am from Srinagar J&K, I am a veterinary science graduate. I graduated in July 2010 and in my first attempt I qualified Kashmir Administrative Services(KAS) with 22rd rank. My subjects were Public Administration and Veterinary Sciences. I Worked in the state service for 2 years.  I appeared in Indian Forest services (IFoS) in 2012 and in my first attempt qualified IFoS with AIR 23 and was allotted  Uttar Pradesh cadre. My Subjects were Zoology and Veterinary Science. I completed my 2 years of training in IGNFA and joined my cadre in 2015 . I was posted as DCF.

While I was qualifying other exams, the passion and zeal to work as an IAS officer remained unfulfilled. During 2011-2013, I appeared CSE three times but I could not even qualify prelims.

My weakness was Paper-2 CSAT. From 2013-15 I could not appear because of AIS IFS Section 9, which debarred IFoS trainees to appear for any exams while undergoing training in IGNFA Dehradun. This year, long wait is over.  Finally I qualified prelims and got AIR 10.

It is all about your passion and determination to move on to achieve what you want. Patience, Passion, Perseverance and hard work are key ingredients.

I am sharing my experience in bullet form, I hope it may help you. For detail analysis and books etc please contact me through mail I m sharing my marks sheet with you.

Marks sheet of Bilal Mohiuddin

Preliminary Examination;

  1. Must read are all textbooks of NCERT. These make strong  base and value addition can be done from newspapers , internet sources.
  1. Just before 2 months from prelims make sure you solve as many mock tests as possible. it must be ensured that you go through explanations and mark some important questions which you will revise again. Insights prelims tests series or vision or any good test series will suffice.
  2. Certain sections like geography and environment should be strengthened as some quality questions which are current based are asked.
  3. You should remember facts but more focus should be on clarity of concepts. This is the thing which will help you in mains. From 2010 onwards we have seen dramatic change in nature of the preliminary examination. UPSC has shifted its focus from facts to concepts.
  4. Remember one mantra that revision is the key .

Mains Examination

  1. Go through the syllabus of MAINS and try to remember the topics . This will help you to pick up the relevant portion of news and add to the mains topic.
  2. Daily minimum 2 hour of answer writing (Insights Secure) is must after prelims one can write 7 questions in an hour. It should be a time bound event.
  3. If possible one should join classroom test series mains. It mimics the exam conditions.
  4. I will say it by my experience that in Mains the conceptual clarity and coherent thought process is given more weightage during marking.
  5. Insights links to topics in Secure Initiative helped me a lot. Try to make your own viewpoint on the current issues.
  6. Write balanced, positive perspective with subtle blend of criticism in questions. Conclude on futuristic and positive note.(3-4 lines)
  7. Whenever you write the answer particularly GS – 3 remember to try to link the answer with the current events and relevant examples. Make sure that you project yourself a learned and educated personality.


  1. Be what you are. the diversity among each us is our strength. polish it, enhance and make it relevant to the situation.
  2. Honesty ,Integrity , Calmness and Composure  are key .
  3. Show them what you are than what you are trying to be.
  4. Please don’t listen to myths of boards and story that circulate on internet. Don’t have stereotypes of any board . Don’t prepare for boards , Prepare for interview.
  5. Showcase yourself a person who is ready to take responsibility of public service.


  1. Present yours ideas coherently and in simple language.
  2. Be original and write what you think about the topic.
  3. Don’t put unnecessary facts and figures . only at relevant places.
  4. Write in such a way that it has a flow and examiner is engrossed to know what next.
  5. Limited quotes . they want your understanding about the topic
  6. Write bigger picture of the issue.
  7. Multi facets of issues and their impact on various sectors like social, political, economic  and ethical should be discussed

Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry

  1. Collage notes and relevant addition from good books .(if u want comprehensive list of books , you can mail me)
  2. Make certain areas very strong . they are   a) animal nutrition b) Animal breeding and population genetics c) milk and milk production technology d) meat and meat product technology.
  3. In the recent past, there is increased focus on medicine, surgery, pharmacology and toxicology.. Make short notes of topics which have been asked.
  4. Make crisp notes of animal physiology so that you can revise at last.
  5. Take latest inputs from Pashudhan magazine and animal husbandry schemes.
  6. Biggest challenge of veterinary sciences is how to sum up the entire syllabus . Flow charts, diagrams and tables should guide .
  7. Apart from books and collage notes there is BRILLIANT TUTORIAL material available in the market.
  8. For comprehensive study and latest topics join TANUVAS  E-LEARNING site . register yourself as Guest user .
  9. Please solve 5 years Mains test papers. Many questions repeat.

Wish you all the best.

My Book List:


1.Ancient History by R S Sharma

2.Medieval history by Satish Chandra

3.Modern history spectrum Rajiv Ahir

4.Culture from GK today culture module

5.Post independence by Bipin Chandra


  1. 6th to 12 the NCERT new textbooks
  2. G C Leong ( basic geography and world climate)
  3. 6th to 10th old geography for world geography chapters

   Indian polity

  1. Vajiram and Ravi notes
  2. Indian polity by M laxmikanth( prelims )

3  NCERT our constitution at work (for mains)

Indian economy and PAPER 3

1.vajiram and Ravi notes

2 selected topics from Ramesh Singh .

3.GK Today  mains paper 3 MODULE ( infrastructure,railways ,ports , etc)

4.economic survey.

World History

  1. GK today module

2 11th and 12th class textbooks

3.solved questions from Norman Lowe ( questions at the end of chapter)


  1. 11th and 12th sociology Text books ( for basic understanding)
  2. GK today module (subscription){ for current acts and Constitutional provision}

Paper 2 mains syllabus( dynamic portion)

1 MY Own notes.

2 Gk today ( especially combined modules on education, poverty , governance ,health).. it is Integrated with current events.


  • Mukul Pathak videos on ethics ( vision)
  • Self prepared notes on thinkers like Gandhi Ji, Jawahar Lal Nehru, B R Ambedkar, S Radha Krishna, Amartya sen etc
  • Lots of answer writing practice.
  • GK Today module is good especially on question answers section ( subscription)
  • I read selectively and practiced a lot.

Current affairs

1 CGS documents by GK today ( subscription)

  1. My own notes from two newspapers , the Hindu and Indian Express

3.Insights daily current affairs.

  1. selected topics from Yojana and Kurukshetra

Answer writing

  1. Vision test series ( classroom)
  2. Insights offline test series ( at home)

Environment an ecology

  1. 11th and 12 text books ICSE ( ecology portion )
  2. GK today environment modules (1-7)
  3. Current notes from newspapers
  4. Moef & CC site for updates esp state of forests and annual report documents .

International relation

  1. current affairs from newspapers. Made my own notes in tabular form.
  2. Insights detailed topic analysis.

Government schemes

  1. GK today schemes
  2. Ministry sites especially rural development, urban and poverty alleviation ,minority, etc

3 For ready reference and consultantation INDIA year book ( do not read it a to z)

International Organization

  1. Wikipedia… when I was tired to read anything

Aptech Private Limited Involved in Recruitment Scams: Why JKSSB Should Cancel Its Contract


Aptech Private Limited, a Mumbai-based company, has been involved in recruitment scams, and it is recommended that the Jammu and Kashmir Services Selection Board (JKSSB) cancel their engagement. APTECH was assigned to conduct recruitment exams for the Assam irrigation department, but the Gauhati High Court stayed the declaration of results due to large-scale anomalies in the February exam. The company had also been blacklisted in Uttar Pradesh for irregularities in selecting candidates in the power department. Despite this, the SSB chairman defended the engagement of the company, saying they had completed their blacklisted period of three years.

The Jammu and Kashmir administration cancelled exams for police sub-inspectors, junior engineers, and finance account assistants in July 2022 following allegations of paper leaks and other malpractices. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is currently investigating the sub-inspector recruitment scam and has already filed a charge sheet against 24 people, including a BSF commandant. Despite the scandal, the recruitment process is back on track, with the SSB introducing new measures such as third-party audits and low-frequency jammers to ensure transparency and fairness.

However, the use of APTECH as the company for conducting exams has raised concerns. While the SSB argues that they employed checks and balances to ensure transparency, accountability, and fairness in the selection process, critics contend that using a blacklisted company undermines the integrity of the recruitment process. The matter is currently sub-judice, and while the SSB argues that they are following government guidelines, it is recommended that they reconsider their engagement of APTECH.

Recruitment scams and malpractices can have severe consequences on job aspirants, who invest time, money, and effort into preparing for exams only to be disqualified due to cheating, paper leaks, or other anomalies. Such practices also undermine public trust in government institutions and create a culture of cynicism and apathy. Therefore, it is essential that recruitment processes are fair, transparent, and accountable to ensure that qualified candidates are selected for the job. Cancelling APTECH’s engagement could be a step towards restoring the confidence of job aspirants in the system and ensuring that recruitment scams are eliminated.

Jammu and Kashmir’s Business Landscape in 2023: A New Era of Opportunity and Resilience

20230120 102219

As of 2023, the business climate in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has undergone significant changes, Despite the challenges posed by the pandemic, the business community has shown remarkable resilience, adapting to new realities and exploring new opportunities.

The abrogation of Article 370 in 2019 and the creation of two Union Territories (UTs) of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh marked a turning point in the region’s political and economic landscape. The move was aimed at bringing J&K into the mainstream and promoting its development by encouraging private sector investment. In the past few years, we have seen several positive developments in this regard.

Firstly, the UT administration has taken several measures to improve the business climate, including simplifying procedures for business registration, issuing licenses, and permits, and streamlining tax administration. The introduction of a single-window clearance system has made it easier for entrepreneurs to start and run their businesses in the region.

Secondly, the government has focused on developing infrastructure, particularly in sectors such as tourism, horticulture, and agriculture. The government’s flagship project, the Jammu and Kashmir Industrial Development Scheme (JKIDS), aims to attract investment in sectors such as IT, healthcare, tourism, and agro-processing.

Thirdly, the government has worked to promote entrepreneurship by launching various schemes such as the Entrepreneurship Development Program (EDP), Seed Capital Fund Scheme (SCFS), and Youth Start-Up Loan Scheme (YSLS). These schemes are aimed at providing financial support and mentorship to young entrepreneurs and promoting the growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the region.

These initiatives have started yielding results, with several companies setting up shop in the region in recent years. Companies such as Amazon, Flipkart, and Jio have announced plans to invest in the region, signaling growing confidence in the region’s business potential.

However, there is still a long way to go. The region faces several challenges, including the ongoing security situation, inadequate infrastructure, and limited access to credit. The government must continue to work on improving these areas to attract more investment and promote economic growth in the region.

The business climate in Jammu and Kashmir has improved significantly in recent years, and there is growing optimism about the region’s economic future. The government’s efforts to promote investment in the region, coupled with the resilience of the business community, bode well for the future. With sustained efforts and investment, J&K has the potential to become a hub for innovation and growth in the years to come.

Rising Unemployment in Jammu Kashmir Paints a Bleak Picture for the Region’s Future


The recent data showing a 7% spike in the unemployment rate in Jammu Kashmir to 21.8% in January is a cause for concern. The highest unemployment rate in the states and UTs across India highlights the ongoing struggles faced by the region in terms of employment and job opportunities. The Jammu Kashmir National Conference has pointed out the growing unemployment, development deficit, and administrative apathy as major issues in the region.

While the government claims that there are a large number of job opportunities available, it appears that this is not reflected in the unemployment data. The high number of postgraduates and PhD degree holders who have registered for jobs and the large number of applicants for a limited number of government posts further highlights the significant demand for employment in the region. The unemployment rate in Jammu Kashmir remains a pressing issue that requires immediate attention and action from the government.

In addition to the rising unemployment rate, it is also concerning that many businesses in Jammu Kashmir are not paying their employees. The Kashmir Chamber of Commerce and Industries reported that thousands of salesmen in the tourism and mobile services business, including shops in the commercial hub of Lal Chowk, were not paid salaries for several months. This not only exacerbates the unemployment issue, but it also creates financial strain on those who are already struggling to make ends meet.

Furthermore, it is disheartening to see that highly educated individuals, such as scholars with Ph.D.s and M. Phil degrees, have had to resort to alternative forms of employment, such as running a tea stall, in order to earn a livelihood. This is a clear indication that the current job market is not providing enough opportunities for all, and the government needs to take swift and comprehensive action to address this issue.

The rising unemployment rate in Jammu Kashmir, combined with the lack of job security and inadequate wages, highlights the need for a comprehensive solution to address the employment and job market issues in the region. The government must work with local businesses, organizations, and educational institutions to create job opportunities and provide support for those struggling to find employment. Only then can Jammu Kashmir begin to see a significant decrease in its unemployment rate and a brighter future for its people.

Reasons Behind IPS Basant Rath’s Decision to Join the BJP

Basant Rath

Interview with a former IPS officer on Political Corruption in Jammu and Kashmir

In this exclusive interview, we speak with a former IPS officer who serves in Jammu and Kashmir and has planned to join the Bharatiya Janata Party. The officer Basant Rath sheds light on the rampant political corruption in the region and his reasons for quitting the Indian Police Service.

The officer recalls the tragedy that took place in Srinagar, where hundreds of people lost their lives and the then chief minister did nothing to prevent these deaths. He also speaks about the widespread problem of adulterated milk and spices not fit for human consumption in the region and the businessmen behind these practices who are too politically connected to fear the law enforcement agencies.

Also Read | IPS officer Basant Rath Claims DGP Dilbag Singh Plans to Assassinate Him

The former IPS officer Basant Rath also sheds light on the daily struggles faced by female students, who are forced to use tardy, overcrowded buses and matadors run by abusive drivers, and face harassment and monetary loot during their daily commute. He blames politicians and businessmen for their involvement in these issues.

The interviewee also highlights the corruption among politicians in the region, who have siphoned thousands of crores of rupees of taxpayers’ money and made huge investments in private medical and engineering colleges. He also touches upon the political tactics used by some leaders, who play condolence politics in Jammu and Kashmir before polling and use Pakistani money to build palatial houses while instigating people to set public properties and police vehicles on fire.

The former IPS officer shares his views on the political scenario in Jammu and Kashmir, calling it unhealthy and likening it to a “dirty marriage”. He recounts his experience at the India Today conclave in January 2019, where he spoke about the people of Kashmir and the FIR that was registered against him for being “anti-national”.

The pandemic has greatly impacted the region, ravaging homes, hospitals, schools, and public transport. The officer speaks about how the pandemic has changed his priorities and life goals, leading him to quit the IPS and join the BJP.

The officer also touches upon the IAS-IPS biradari, calling it a “dirge of rampant political interference” and afflicted with four deficits – the deficits of knowledge, trust, integrity, and accountability. He reflects on his experience at the National Police Academy, where he realized that India’s top bureaucrats are the real non-performing assets of the country’s political economy of governance architecture.

The former IPS officer expresses his belief that the only way to make politics of dignity a reality is by co-producing dignity of politics as consumers and producers, which is why he is going to join the BJP.

This interview provides a rare glimpse into the rampant political corruption in Jammu and Kashmir and the struggles faced by the people in the region. It also highlights the need for systemic change in the political scenario in the region and the country as a whole.

Jammu and Kashmir Anti-Encroachment Drive: A Violation of Human Values and Basic Rights | Opinion

Jammu Kashmir State Land News

Eviction drives can be considered as against human values as they often result in the forced displacement of people from their homes and communities, causing emotional and financial hardship, loss of security and sense of belonging. In some cases, evictions can also lead to physical violence and violation of human rights. These actions go against values such as dignity, security, and respect for the right to housing and can have lasting negative impacts on individuals, families, and communities.

In Jammu and Kashmir, eviction drives have been a source of controversy and conflict, particularly in recent days. The government has conducted eviction drives in the region as part of urban planning and development initiatives, but these have often been criticized for being carried out without proper notice, compensation, or alternative housing arrangements for those affected. This has led to feelings of anger and injustice among affected communities, and has raised concerns about human rights violations and the violation of the right to housing. The issue remains complex and sensitive, with various stakeholders holding different perspectives on the issue.

The approach to addressing someone occupying state land depends on the specific laws and regulations of the jurisdiction in question. Generally, the following steps can be followed:

  1. Determine the legal ownership of the land: This can be done by reviewing relevant public records, maps, and other official documents.
  2. Notify the occupant: If the land is indeed state-owned, the government or its authorized representative should send a formal notice to the occupant, informing them of their unlawful occupation and giving them a set time period to vacate the property.
  3. Seek legal remedies: If the occupant does not vacate the property within the specified time, the government may have to take legal action to have them evicted. This process may involve filing a lawsuit and obtaining a court order for eviction.
  4. Execute the eviction order: If the court orders the eviction, the government must enforce the order through its authorized law enforcement agencies.

It’s important to note that in many jurisdictions, there are specific laws and procedures that must be followed during eviction processes, and it’s crucial to respect these procedures in order to ensure that the rights of all parties involved are protected. Additionally, the government may need to provide alternative housing or compensation to the affected individuals in accordance with applicable laws.

Governments can help poor individuals who do not have access to land in several ways, including:

  1. Affordable housing programs: Governments can provide low-cost housing units to those who cannot afford market-rate housing. These programs can include subsidies, tax credits, and other forms of financial assistance to help make housing more affordable for low-income individuals and families.
  2. Land distribution programs: Governments can also allocate land to the poor and homeless, either through land grants or by allowing them to purchase land at a reduced rate. This can provide individuals and families with a secure and stable place to live, and can help to reduce poverty and homelessness.
  3. Homelessness support services: Governments can provide services to help the homeless find and maintain housing, such as case management, job training, and financial assistance.
  4. Rent subsidies: Governments can provide financial assistance to
  5. help low-income families pay their rent, making it easier for them to access safe and affordable housing.
  6. Slum upgrading programs: Governments can work to improve the conditions of informal settlements, or slums, by providing basic services such as water, sanitation, and electricity, and by upgrading housing units to make them safer and more livable.
  7. Public-private partnerships: Governments can partner with private sector organizations and non-profit organizations to create affordable housing programs and support services for the poor.
  8. It’s important to note that the specific programs and initiatives implemented will vary depending on the resources, policies, and laws of the government in question, but the goal remains the same: to ensure that everyone has access to safe and affordable housing.

Electing the Future: Upcoming Assembly Elections in Jammu and Kashmir

Elections in Jammu and Kashmir

The upcoming assembly elections in Jammu and Kashmir are set to be held in the near future and are being closely watched by the political and media circles. Jammu and Kashmir is a Union Territory located in the northern region of India and is known for its rich culture and history, as well as its strategic importance for the country.

The assembly elections are an important event for the people of Jammu and Kashmir, as it will determine the direction of the UT’s future political, economic and social development. The Union Territory is divided into 2 regions – Jammu & Kashmir – and both regions have its own unique challenges and priorities.

The main political parties that are expected to contest the elections include the National Conference (NC), the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and the Indian National Congress (INC). Each of these parties has its own strengths and weaknesses and is expected to make a strong showing in the elections.

The BJP, which is currently in power at the center, is expected to focus on its development and security-related initiatives in Jammu and Kashmir. The party has been working to increase the pace of development in the UT and to provide better opportunities for the people.

The NC, on the other hand, is expected to focus on its traditional support base in the Kashmir region and to emphasize its commitment to preserving the UT’s unique cultural and historical heritage. The PDP, which was in power in the erstwhile state from 2015 to 2018, is likely to focus on its experience of governance and its ability to deliver results for the people.

The INC is expected to be a strong contender in the elections, given its strong support base in the Jammu region and its commitment to the welfare of the people. The party is likely to focus on its promise of creating jobs, providing better healthcare and education, and improving the quality of life for the people.

In conclusion, the upcoming assembly elections in Jammu and Kashmir are of great significance for the people of the Union Territory and for the country as a whole. The elections will provide an opportunity for the people to choose their representatives and to have a say in the direction of their UT’s future development. The political parties will need to work hard to win the support of the people and to convince them of their vision and ability to deliver on their promises.

When is government of India planning to hold elections in Jammu and Kashmir?

The exact date for the upcoming assembly elections in Jammu and Kashmir has not been announced by the government of India yet. The election schedule is typically announced by the Election Commission of India, which is responsible for conducting free and fair elections in the country. The Commission takes into account various factors such as the availability of security forces, weather conditions, and other logistical arrangements before announcing the election schedule.

It is worth noting that the situation in Jammu and Kashmir is complex and dynamic, and the government and the Election Commission will have to carefully consider various factors before announcing the election schedule. The people of Jammu and Kashmir are eagerly awaiting the announcement of the election date and are hoping for a peaceful and fair election process.

What are demands of People of Chenab Valley?

The demands of the people of Chenab Valley in Jammu and Kashmir are diverse and depend on various factors such as the socio-economic and political situation of the region, as well as the individual priorities and needs of the people. Some of the common demands of the people of Chenab Valley include:

  1. Employment and economic opportunities: Like many other regions in Jammu and Kashmir, the people of Chenab Valley are looking for better employment and economic opportunities. This includes creating new jobs, providing better wages and working conditions, and promoting small-scale industries.
  2. Improved infrastructure: The people of Chenab Valley are demanding better infrastructure facilities such as roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, and power supply.
  3. Healthcare: The region is in need of better healthcare facilities, including more hospitals and clinics, as well as more qualified doctors and nurses.
  4. Education: The people of Chenab Valley are demanding better educational facilities and opportunities for their children, including better schools, colleges, and universities.
  5. Security: Like other regions in Jammu and Kashmir, the people of Chenab Valley are also concerned about their safety and security and are demanding better security measures to protect themselves and their families.
  6. Environmental protection: The region is known for its natural beauty and rich cultural heritage, and the people of Chenab Valley are demanding better protection of the environment and the preservation of the region’s cultural heritage.

These are some of the common demands of the people of Chenab Valley, but the specific demands may vary depending on the individual needs and priorities of the people. The political parties and the government will need to take these demands into account when formulating their policies and development plans for the region.

Which party is more powerful in Jammu and Kashmir?

It is difficult to determine which party is more powerful in Jammu and Kashmir as it depends on the current political and social dynamics of the UT. The political landscape of Jammu and Kashmir is complex and dynamic, and the support base of different parties can change depending on various factors such as their performance in the government, their stance on regional and national issues, and their ability to address the needs and concerns of the people.

Some of the major political parties in Jammu and Kashmir include the National Conference (NC), the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and the Indian National Congress (INC). Each of these parties has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the political landscape can change depending on the specific circumstances of each election.

It is worth noting that the political situation in Jammu and Kashmir is constantly evolving, and the popularity and support base of each party can change from election to election. Therefore, it is difficult to determine which party is more powerful in Jammu and Kashmir at any given point in time.

What should be the manifesto for elections in Jammu and Kashmir?

The manifesto for the upcoming assembly elections in Jammu and Kashmir should reflect the needs and aspirations of the people of the UT. A comprehensive and well-crafted manifesto should address a range of issues such as:

  1. Economic development: The manifesto should focus on creating new job opportunities, promoting entrepreneurship and small businesses, and improving the overall economic climate in the UT.
  2. Infrastructure development: The manifesto should prioritize the development of roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, and other infrastructure facilities to improve the quality of life for the people of Jammu and Kashmir.
  3. Healthcare: The manifesto should emphasize the need for better healthcare facilities, including more hospitals and clinics, and improving the quality of care provided by healthcare professionals.
  4. Education: The manifesto should prioritize education and skill development, including providing better educational facilities and opportunities for the people of Jammu and Kashmir.
  5. Security: The manifesto should emphasize the need for better security measures to protect the people of Jammu and Kashmir and maintain peace and stability in the region.
  6. Environmental protection: The manifesto should focus on protecting the environment and preserving the cultural heritage of Jammu and Kashmir.
  7. Good governance: The manifesto should emphasize the need for transparent, accountable, and responsive governance to meet the needs and aspirations of the people of Jammu and Kashmir.

These are some of the key issues that should be addressed in the manifesto for the upcoming assembly elections in Jammu and Kashmir. A well-crafted manifesto can help political parties to connect with the people, build trust, and win their support. The manifesto should be a roadmap for the future development of Jammu and Kashmir, and should reflect the priorities and aspirations of the people of the Union Territory.

(Saqib Hafiz is a Blogger and Writer from Kashmir Valley)

DISCLAIMER: The views and opinions expressed in this article are the personal opinions of the author.

The facts, analysis, assumptions and perspective appearing in the article do not reflect the views of JKYouth Newspaper.

Meet Saima Ahad: Cracks JKPSC JKAS exam with 26th Rank in her 3rd Attempt

Saima Ahad JKPSC KAS Topper 2023

SRINAGAR: Ganderbal girl Saima Ahad made it to the final selection list of JKPSC JKAS examination in her 3rd Attempt, The result was declared by the PSC board early morning on Friday. Nothing is impossible in Life If you have to achieve a goal in life, then you must work hard for it, even if you have problems with it.

This has been proved by an Ganderbal girl who secured 26th rank in the prestigious Jammu Kashmir Administrative Services (JKAS) Examination, the result of which was declared early on Friday.

Also Read: Meet Megha Gupta: JKPSC JKAS Topper from Jammu

Hailing from Yangoora village of central Kashmir’s Ganderbal district Saima Ahad who presently working in ACP Office Kupwara, Qualified JKAS Exam’s in 3rd attempt.

Talking to Rising Kashmir Saima Ahad said that I did my schooling from Hussaini Public school HMT Srinagar and later i completed my 12th from Govt Higher Secondry School (GHSS) Kothi Bagh then Btech from Kashmir University (KU) 

She said I worked on some innovation projects but started civil services preparation side by side, however it took a long time because of father’s illness,

During that time I had to face many difficulties but my family gave me all the support that was needed . They let me pursue my studies.

Also Read: Meet Bilal Mohiuddin Bhat UPSC CSE AIR – 10: 4th Attempt, Toppers Strategy

Meanwhile I qualified PAA exam and now (JKAS) it wasn’t easy to reach here but Almighty helped to achieve the feet, she told RK. 

Stay away from distractions like digital as much as possible and stay focused on aim and then you can achieve any goal in life, she said.

Opinion | Will Be a Historical Blunder if Jammu & Kashmir’s Paharis Get ST Status

Tribal Bachao March

Union Home Minister Amit Shah, on his visit to Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) on 3 October, promised reservation to Paharis and assured Gujjar Bakerwals that not even 1% from their quota will be reduced. He also stated that Justice G D Sharma Commission has submitted its report and reservation according to the recommendations of the commission will be given to Gujjars, Bakerwals and Paharis. 

While the Gujjar Bakerwals already have Scheduled Tribes reservation, the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) endorsed the inclusion of Paharis in the ST list early this month, as reported by The Hindu. The proposal, green-lit by the commission, also called for the inclusion of the ‘Paddari tribe,’ ‘Koli’ and ‘Gadda Brahman’ communities in the ST list of J&K.

In response to the government’s plans to give Paharis ST status, tribal communities in J&K started ‘Tribal Bachao March‘ from Kupwara to Kathua under the banner of Gujjar Bakerwal Joint Action Committee, headed by activist Haji Mohammad Yousaf Gorsi.

On 9 November, the march reached Srinagar where more than 5,000 people joined it. The protesters have been demanding the rollback of Justice G D Sharma Commission Report and have opposed the ST status for Paharis. They are also against identifying Paharis as an ethnic group as opposed to a linguistic group.

What Scholars Have to Say About Paharis

Noted historian and columnist K D Maini, who identifies himself as a Pahari, writes in a paper,

“Paharis are the inhabitants of the Pir Panchal region and constitute 51 percent of the population of this region. They occupy a large terrain starting from the south of Banihal and going up to Muzaffarabad. Poonch, Rajouri, Uri and Karnah fall in the J&K state while Muzafarabad, Bagh, Sudhnutti, Rawalakote, Kotli, Mirpur and Bhimber are located in the POK. The Paharis are comprised of various castes, creeds, sects and religions. They are Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs and are bounded to each other only through their mother tongue Pahari while canvassing distinct cultural heritage, social, economic and historical backgrounds.”

Sumantra Bose too writes about the heterogeneity of Pir Panjal region in a paper,

“The Muslim majorities in Rajouri and Poonch, unlike those in the Kashmir Valley and Doda, are largely not Kashmiris and mostly belong to other communities such as Gujjars and Bakerwals (traditionally nomadic pastoralists), Rajputs and other smaller ethnic groups.”

Opinion | Will Be a Historical Blunder if Jammu & Kashmir's Paharis Get ST Status 1

Nowhere do K D Maini and Sumantra Bose refer to Paharis as a tribe. If those living in Pir Panjal are Paharis, those living in Chenab valley and in parts of Kashmir equally deserve to be called Paharis and sure enough, similar demands are emerging from those areas.

Gujjar Bakerwals Have a Long History of Marginalisation

Paharis, who are found in the Pir Panjal region and parts of Kashmir valley, belong to various religions and castes, including Brahmins, Rajputs, Sikhs, Muslim Rajputs, Syeds, and Mughals.

How can Brahmins, Rajputs and Muslim upper castes, who held the highest offices and controlled economic activities in Rajouri and Poonch, be at par with Gujjar Bakerwals who reside mostly on mountainous terrains and jungles in far-off rural areas where basic amenities like electricity, public health centre, and schools are still a distant dream? 

Even today, Gujjar is used as a slur by the upper castes. People who till yesterday were landlords, tax collectors, and rulers and who proudly identified themselves as Rajputs and used titles like sardar and raja are now claiming to be socially isolated and stigmatised.

Gujjar Bakerwal tribe has been a victim of social stigma because of their lifestyle, culture, and other distinct practices. Historical records, oral and written, describe the injustices meted out to this marginalised community by the upper-class Muslims, mostly during the rule of Jarals, who identified themselves as Muslim Rajputs, from the 12th century to 19th century in Rajouri and adjoining areas. 

Gujjar Bakerwal is the third largest ethnic community in J&K after Kashmiris and Dogras. They were notified as a Scheduled Tribe in 1991 after a long struggle of around four decades. Majority of their population is concentrated in Pir Panjal region but they are spread across J&K. More than half a million Gujjar Bakerwals are nomadic and keep moving from one place to another in search of fodder for their cattle, sheep and goats. The 2011 census recorded Gujjar Bakerwals literacy rate at 50%, which is quite worrying.

BJP’s Political Machinations

After the abrogation of Article 370 on 5 August 2019, political reservations and Forest Rights Act, 2006 were extended to J&K. Out of nine seats for STs in J&K, five are in Rajouri and Poonch districts, where both Gujjar Bakerwals and Paharis are in good numbers. The delimitation commission report has not gone down well with politicians from upper caste communities and they started politicising the whole issue. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) cashed in on the growing tension between the two communities and started making promises to include Pahari community in the ST list.

Gujjar Bakerwals state that the people who were responsible for historical injustices against them are demanding ST status today. They ask, how can oppressor and oppressed sail in the same boat? Paharis are neither backward nor poor and have no traits that would qualify them to be notified as a tribe. It will be a historic blunder if the Paharis are granted the ST status as it will defeat the purpose of reservation envisaged in the Constitution by the framers of that great document.

(Shahid Ayoub is a PhD scholar in English at the University of Kashmir. He is also the Additional Spokesperson, Gujjar Bakerwal Joint Action Committee.)

Article by Shahid Ayoub for TheQuint

Opinion | Drug Addiction Among The Teenagers a Big Threat

Opinion | Drug Addiction Among The Teenagers a Big Threat 2

Firstly, we will see what is drug? Drug is a chemical which people use to give them pleasant or exciting feelings or in other words drug are substance that changes a person’s mental or physical state.

Now here arise a question does everyone who take drug become addicted? Not everyone who use drug become drug addicted because they use drug to relieve some medical condition and when they are cured or when the medical condition is over they leave them.

You may have another question, how did this happen ? Or how a person becomes drug addict? Some people who feel depressed begin to use the drug to self-medicate and get addicted to it . Sometimes a traumatized event , a relationship issues or a toxic parenting lead a person to drugs. Some other people use drugs to escape from the pressures of life.When a person takes abnormal or inappropriate drugs is drug abuse and drug addiction is continued compulsive use of drugs  inspite of their adverse health, social and emotional consequences. When a person becomes drug addict he loses his control over drug use and becomes isolated from family and friends. They may also face difficulty at various stages of life and sometimes leads them to commit crimes. Drug addiction also leads some critical health problems like higher risk of heart problems, HIV virus , Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C etc. It also spoils number of human lives and also destroys the golden period of life. The fact is drug addiction is a chronic disease of the brain that cannot be overcome overnight , with simple “NO” or change of mind. If you are asking ” Why do people get addicted ” Or Why did my child,sister, brother or beloved one get addicted. It is important to acknowledge it first , support them and listen their problems they are facing in day to day life. Do not criticize them, be polite with them and try to extract the root cause why are they taking drugs and also provide them emotional support. Try to eliminate such things which hurt their sentiments and let them take time to quit drugs. All they need  is support and affection from their loved ones.  Also give them professional treatments including counselling, medicine or both.

Addiction is a huge societal problem our world is currently facing. With drug abuse in kashmir  becoming a rampant phenomenon. The main drug rehabilitation facility in Srinagar is reporting at least 150 cases of addiction everyday out of which 95% are heroin abusers which has spread its tentacles deep into kashmiri society over last 5 years . What is alarming is that these 90% addicts were found to be in the 17- 33 age group. The money involved in huge, while 1gram of heroin is available for 1200- 1500 in kupwara and in Srinagar peddlers charge Rs 2500- 3000 for it. Drug addiction is now directly proportional to the increasing crimes in the valley. Drug addiction gives birth to many crime  like theft , domestic violation,suicides and murders. According to the police 90% of the theft have been committed by the drug users . 1249kg of narcotics have been seized including 16.23 kg of heroin in the first seven months of 2022.

According to DR. Yasir Rather who the heads IMHAN rehabilitation centre said that earlier abusers used to come from specific areas ” but now patients were  coming  from every nook and corner of kashmir”.He further said we have patients from well- off family , educated, uneducated and even professional are also involved in it . United national drug control programme (UNDCP) reported that around 70000 people are drug addicts in the kashmir valley alone among which 4000 are female. It is an alarming situation now.


Article by Irtiqa Farooq for KashmirGlobal | (Irtiqa farooq is a BA Student, womens right activist.)